Politicians To People


  • Politician's website
  • Articles discussing the use of political websites
  • How political websites have changed over the years

Secondary sources or scholarly articles

Lazer, Esterling & Neblo. "Style conscious: how members of congress learn new ways to communicate." ACM International Conference Proceeding Series; Vol. 89: Proceedings of the 2005 national conference on Digital government research. 2005
External source
…However, the rapid rise and massive importance of computer mediated communication has been more revolutionary than evolutionary. As a result, politicians have had to adapt very quickly, exposing themselves to risks even as they compete to capitalize on new opportunities. Over the last decade, Members of Congress have struggled to deploy their typically formidable communication skills effectively in the uncharted waters of the Internet and the World Wide Web. This struggle involves, in part, learning from experience, but just as importantly, learning from the experiences of others. Thus we cannot fully grasp the dynamics of individual adaptive processes without analyzing their relational dimension as well. As researchers, then, we can fruitfully characterize diffusing practices as a collective learning process within the Congress.

Benoit & Benoit. "The Virtual Campaign: Presidential Primary Websites in Campaign 2000." University of Missouri. 1999
External source
This essay begins by arguing that candidate webpages will become increasing important as a campaign communication medium. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of webpages for both candidates and voters. Then we develop a set of design criteria for evaluating candidate webpages. Using webpages downloaded in March and May of 1999, we placed candidate webpages into four groups, based on our criteria. The worst webpages were from Bush and Smith. The second lowest group included Bauer, Buchanan, Kasich, and Keyes (later, Keyes¹ webpage was completely redesigned and would have ranked much higher had we assessed the later version). The second best group included Bradley, Dole, Forbes, McCain, and Quayle. Finally, we judged the webpages of Alexander and Gore to be the best, according to our criteria.

Klotz. "Positive Spin: Senate Campaigning on the Web." PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 30, No. 3. pp. 482-486. September, 1997
External source
The perpetual greeting from the complain home page of Senator Carl Levin shows that as with the adaptation of any new technology, Internet use by political candidates will undergo some rough spots. The early stages of a technology also tend to prompt divergent claims about the merits of the new technology. Thus, while political scientist David Canon has praised campaign sites as a “positive development” for allowing the transmission of extensive information, Ted Becker, another political scientist, has been highly critical of the sites calling them “cyberfluff.” By systematically studying the content of 1996 Senate candidate home pages, this article offers some hope for reconciling the divergent claims about Internet campaigning.

David A. Dulio; Donald L. Goff; James A. Thurber. "Untangled Web: Internet Use during the 1998 Election." PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 32, No. 1. pp. 53-59. March, 1999
External source
During the 1996 election cycle, candidates for public office began to use the Internet as a campaign tool. As Internet use grew among the general population it was reasonable to expect that the 1998 election cycle would see increased use of this new medium by political candidates, and new methods and techniques developed to exploit its capabilities.

Sadow & James. "Virtual Billboards? Candidate Web Sites and Campaigning in 1998." Louisiana State University in Shreveport. Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. 1999.
External source
After the 1996 elections, many analysts predicted that use of the Internet in American campaigns, particularly with candidate web sites, would evolve away from being used as a dumping ground for campaign literature accessible in other ways into a more interactive media. For this to happen, the producers of these sites must believe this and commit sufficient resources to cause this to happen.

Conners, Joan. "Meetup, Blogs, and Online Involvement: U.S. Senate Campaign Websites of 2004." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 Online. March 11, 2008
External Source
External source
This paper discusses technological developments within U.S. Senate campaign websites in 2004, the extent to which they were used, and their potential utility. Specifically, linking to Meetup groups, the use of blogs on campaign websites, and specific online elements of interactivity were assessed. While the 2004 presidential election was first noted for many of these resources, this study finds they are making their way into Senate elections, are generally used more by Democratic candidates than Republicans, and the use of some online opportunities correlate with others in political campaigns.

Howard, Philip. "Deep Democracy, Thin Citizenship: The Impact of Digital Media in Political Campaign Strategy." The Annals of the Academy of Political and Social Science. 2005
External source
Howard examines how digital media has affected political involvement. As the years have passed, more people have used the Internet in order to get more information on politics. However, political campaigns often use database technologies in order to target groups that are particularly susceptible to their campaign messages. These technologies are often used without the expressed consent of the people. In addition, tailoring messages to certain people makes it less likely that people will consume the same texts; the lack of shared text is a problem for public discussion.

Luo, Michael. "Clinton Sees Rise in Online Donations." The New York Times. March 22, 2008
External source
By mentioning her site more often, Hillary Clinton has managed to increase donations to her campaign.

Heller, Steven. "To the Letter Born." The New York Times. April 2, 2008
External source
Discussion of the branding of Obama through his website and other media.

Heller, Steven. "Beyond Red, White and Blue." The New York Times. February 15, 2008
External source
Discussion of the prior graphical use with political candidates. This would also fit under Professional Third Party Productions.

Primary sources

President George Bush
Whitehouse.gov is the official web site for the White House and President George W. Bush, the 43rd President of the United States.

2008 Presidential Canidate John McCain's website
The Official Website of John McCain's 2008 Campaign for President.

2008 Presidential Canidate Barack Obama's website
Official Website of Barack Obama 2008 Presidential Campaign.

2008 Presidential Canidate Hillary Clinton's website
Official campaign site provides news clips, video, a weblog and information on making contributions.

Former 2008 Presidental Canidate Mitt Romney
Official archived campaign site provides his biography, news and information on how to support his candidacy.

Ideal Campaign
mission statement: Ideal Campaign uses our core content management system that handles all of the security, search engine optimization, and back-end processes like credit card donations and volunteer management.

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