Politician Use Of Existing Applications

Examples

  • Obama's Facebook profile
  • Facebook-ABC debate
  • CNN-Youtube debate

Secondary Sources or Scholarly Articles

Cornfield, Michael. "The Internet and Campaign 2004: A Look Back at the Campaigners." Pew Internet and American Life Project. 2005
External source
The commentary looks at how elements of the Internet, particularly blogs, established new grounds for the 2004 presidential elections.

Cox, Jeff. "The Social Networking Election." CNNMoney.com. September 12, 2007
External source
The article looks at how politicians have become involved in social networking sites. In addition, some candidates have put ads for certain interests on their social networking profiles, increasing exposure and revenue for the advertisers.

Davies, Frank. "The Race Online: Obama, Rivals Bring Internet Campaigning to New Level." McClatchy-Tribune Business News. February 24, 2008
External source
For the 2008 presidential elections, most candidates have been employing various Internet technologies, particularly social networking sites. Obama has been particularly successful in using the Internet to increase exposure and funding.

Foot, Kirsten A., Steven M. Schneider. "Web Campaigning." Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
External source
The use of the Web in U.S. political campaigns has developed dramatically over the course of the last several election seasons. In Web Campaigning, Kirsten Foot and Steven Schneider examine the evolution of campaigns' Web practices, based on hundreds of campaign Web sites produced by range of political actors during the U.S. elections of 2000, 2002, and 2004.

Hindman, Matthew. "The Real Lessons of Howard Dean: Reflections on the First Digital Campaign." Cambridge Journals. March 9, 2005
External source
Hindman examines how Howard Dean pioneered online campaigning and points out some of the mistakes that Dean made in the 2004 presidential race.

Horowitz, Etan. "Students get political at Facebook: The social-networking Web site now lets users tout candidates." Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. Washington: September 20, 2006.
External source
This news article discusses the power of social networking sites like Facebook in gaining political support. Candidates like Charlie Crist utilize Facebook pages to help mobilize campaign support on college campuses which appears to be a successful way to rally the youth vote.

Jenkins, Henry. "Answering Questions from a Snowman: The YouTube Debate and Its Aftermath." Confessions of an Aca-Fan. August 1, 2007
External source
The article notes how bringing new media into the 2008 CNN-YouTube Democratic presidential debates forced the candidates to shift their ways of speaking to the public. Jenkins notes that the YouTube debate was similar in style to a "town hall meeting debate." By creating videos to ask questions to the candidates, users were able to make their questions seem more personal and relevant to the general public. Jenkins believes that the YouTube debates may help Democrats more than Republicans because the format of the debates reflects more of the "populist messages" that Democrats tend to embrace.

Sachoff, Mike. "Obama Campaign Spent $1 Million on Google." WebProNews. March 25, 2008
External source
The article compares how the Obama and Clinton campaigns have spent their money on Internet technologies; the Obama campaign has spent considerably more. In addition, the Obama campaign has been able to raise more money online than the Clinton campaign.

Seelyle, Katharine Q., Leslie Wayne. "The Web Takes Ron Paul for a Ride." The New York Times. November 11, 2007
External source
Ron Paul's supporters have used the Internet to help increase his exposure. Paul's online support helped him earn an astronomical $4 million in fundraising in one day.

The Pew Research Center. "Social Networking and Online Videos Take Off: Internet's Broader Role in Campaign 2008." The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. January 11, 2008
External source
The study has found that over the years, an increasing number of Americans rely on the Internet to learn more information about presidential political campaigns. Television's role as being a source of campaign information has remained important, but it is decreasing in popularity, especially among younger people. Social networking sites and online video have played an increasing role in educating people about political campaigns.

Tanz, Jason. "One Candidate Mastered Online Campaigning. Too Bad It Was Ron Paul." Wired. March 19, 2008.
External source
The article examines Ron Paul's use of online campaigning. Supporters of Ron Paul have successfully used Web applications such as Digg and Flickr to increase Paul's exposure to the general public. In addition, Ron Paul has been able to raise impressive amounts of campaign money through online support.

Williams, Alex. "The Future President, on Your Friends List." The New York Times. March 18, 2007
External source
The article describes how MySpace has set up an "Impact Channel," which links to political MySpace pages. Candidates have set up MySpace pages to reach a large number and variety of people.

Primary Sources

Barack Obama's Facebook profile
Facebook profile for potential 2008 democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama

Barack Obama's MySpace profile
MySpace profile for potential 2008 democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama

Hillary Clinton's Facebook profile
Facebook profile for potential 2008 democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton

John McCain's MySpace profile
MySpace profile for potential 2008 democratic presidential candidate John McCain

John McCain's Facebook profile
Facebook profile for 2008 republican presidential candidate John McCain

"The CNN-YouTube Debates: The Democrats." YouTube.
The site features video clips from the Democratic presidential debate hosted by CNN and YouTube on July 23, 2007. YouTube users appear on video to ask the candidates questions about the state of the American economy, gay marriage, and healthcare plans, among other topics.

"The CNN-YouTube Debates: The Republicans." YouTube.
The site features video clips from the Republican presidential debate hosted by CNN and YouTube on November 28, 2007. The Republican debates are held in a format similar to the Democratic debates: YouTube users ask questions to the candidates through video. Topics range from the validity of "Don't ask, don't tell" in the American military to Rudy Giuliani's decision to root for the Red Sox in the 2007 World Series.

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